Important Legal Considerations When Moving to Puerto Rico: Key Aspects to Know

Puerto Rico, a beautiful Caribbean island and unincorporated U.S. territory, attracts many new residents with its warm climate, stunning beaches, and diverse culture. However, moving to any new place requires careful planning and preparation, especially when it comes to legal considerations. When contemplating a move to Puerto Rico, one must familiarize themselves with the local laws, regulations, and the processes involved in establishing residency, purchasing property, and setting up businesses.

One significant motivation for individuals and businesses to relocate to Puerto Rico is the tax benefits and incentives offered under legislation such as Act 60. This law provides considerable tax advantages for qualified residents and has been a major driver in attracting investment to the island. Moreover, Puerto Rico’s legal system, based on civil law with elements of common law, may differ from the mainland U.S. in various aspects – ranging from property rights to contractual arrangements – necessitating a thorough understanding of the distinctions to ensure a smooth transition.

Key Takeaways

  • Puerto Rico offers attractive tax benefits which require understanding local laws and regulations before moving
  • Establishing residency and navigating the legal landscape can be complex, necessitating thorough research and preparation
  • A careful consideration of various factors, including property, business, and lifestyle needs, is crucial for a successful move to the island.

Tax Benefits and Incentives

Act 60

On July 1, 2019, Puerto Rico enacted legislation called Act 60, providing tax incentives for U.S. citizens that become residents of the island. Of particular interest in Act 60 are Chapter 2 for Resident Individual Investors and Chapter 3 for Export Services. To qualify, new residents must live in Puerto Rico for at least half of the year, and upon meeting these requirements, they will be shielded from paying most federal income taxes.

Tax Rate Reduction

One of the main advantages of Puerto Rico’s tax incentives is the reduced tax rate on income derived from export services. Under Act 60’s Export Services chapter, eligible businesses can enjoy a 4% income tax rate, significantly lower than the federal tax rate in mainland U.S. This reduction aims to encourage businesses to operate in Puerto Rico and promote the island’s economic growth.

Capital Gains Tax Advantages

Another significant tax benefit of relocating to Puerto Rico is the exemption from capital gains taxes. While residing in the United States, individuals must pay a 20% tax rate on capital gains. However, by moving to Puerto Rico, any gains on assets held after becoming a resident will not be subject to capital gains tax. It is essential to make a note of the value of your shares at the time of relocation; only the gains accumulated while residing in Puerto Rico will be tax-exempt.

Establishing Residency

Bona Fide Resident

Becoming a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico is crucial to taking advantage of tax incentives provided by Act 60. A bona fide resident is exempt from local taxes on all passive income. To become a bona fide resident, you must satisfy a series of tests.

Presence Test

The presence test determines whether you have a substantial presence in Puerto Rico. You must be physically present in the island for at least 183 days during the taxable year. It is important to keep detailed records of your time spent in Puerto Rico, as this information will be needed when declaring your residency.

Tax Home Test

Your tax home must be in Puerto Rico to meet the tax home test. This means your main place of work, business, or employment must be located on the island. If you are self-employed, your primary office must be in Puerto Rico. In case you have multiple places of employment, determining your tax home requires considering factors such as income earned at each location, the duration of work-related activities, and the significance of each workplace.

Closer Connection Test

The closer connection test establishes that your social, economic, and family ties are stronger in Puerto Rico than in any other location. Factors that support a closer connection include having a Puerto Rican driver’s license, owning or renting a home on the island, and having close family members, such as a spouse or dependent children, in Puerto Rico.

Remember, to qualify as a bona fide resident, you must pass all three tests and file Form 8898 with the IRS to notify them of your new residency status.

Property and Real Estate

Finding a Home

When considering a move to Puerto Rico, one of the first steps is to search for a suitable property. The island’s real estate market offers a diverse range of options, from affordable apartments to luxurious beachfront villas. It is recommended to work with a local real estate agent who has expertise in the specific area you are interested in. They can guide you through the process and help you find the best property that meets your needs and budget.

Cost of Living

The cost of living in Puerto Rico can vary significantly depending on the location and your lifestyle preferences. Generally, it is lower compared to many cities in mainland US. However, keep in mind that certain goods and services might be more expensive due to import costs. To estimate your expenses, consider factors such as housing, utilities, food, transportation, healthcare, and entertainment. It is essential to conduct thorough research and create a realistic budget that reflects your lifestyle and financial goals.

Municipal Taxes

Property owners in Puerto Rico need to be aware of the municipal taxes imposed on real estate. These taxes, known as “CRIM” (Centro de Recaudación de Ingresos Municipales), are based on a property’s assessed value and vary depending on the municipality where the property is located. The tax rate is usually lower than in the US, but can still have a significant impact on your overall expenses. It is crucial to examine the property tax rates in the area you are considering purchasing a property and factor it into your budget before committing to a purchase.

Business and Employment

Export Services

Puerto Rico provides a number of tax incentives for businesses engaged in export services. Under Act 60, qualified export service businesses may benefit from a 4% corporate income tax rate and a 100% exemption on distributions from earnings and profits. To qualify, the business must meet certain requirements, such as being a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico and making a $10,000 annual donation to not-for-profit entities operating on the island that are not controlled by the taxpayer or close relatives.

Some eligible export services include, but are not limited to:

  • Research and development
  • Advertising and public relations
  • Economic, environmental, scientific, and technical consulting
  • Commercial art and graphic services
  • Engineering and architectural services

Sole Proprietorships

In Puerto Rico, a sole proprietorship is the simplest business structure and is legally considered an extension of the individual owner. It’s important to note that sole proprietors are subject to both federal and local taxation on their gross revenue and net income. Unlike corporations or limited liability companies (LLCs), proprietors are not shielded from personal liability for the business’s debts and obligations.

For tax purposes, profits and losses from a sole proprietorship are reported on the individual’s personal federal income tax return. In addition, the sole proprietor must comply with all applicable Puerto Rican tax laws, including filing an annual individual tax return on Form 1040-PR.

Keep in mind that moving to Puerto Rico and starting a business may involve meeting a variety of legal considerations, depending on your specific situation. It’s always important to consult with legal and tax professionals to ensure compliance with all relevant laws and regulations.

Financial and Legal Considerations


When relocating to Puerto Rico, it is essential to understand the banking system on the island. One of the major banks in Puerto Rico is Banco Popular, which offers a wide range of financial services. Opening a bank account in Puerto Rico is similar to the process in the United States, and it is crucial for managing your finances and accessing funds while residing on the island.

Retirement Plans

If you are considering moving to Puerto Rico and have a US-based retirement plan, it is vital to understand how your retirement plan will be affected. Some retirement plans may have specific requirements for maintaining tax-qualified status. It is advisable to consult with a financial advisor or tax professional to discuss your options and ensure compliance with relevant regulations.

U.S. Tax Withholding

While residents of Puerto Rico enjoy various tax benefits, it is essential to be aware of the U.S. tax withholding requirements that may still apply. Depending on your residency status, income sources, and other factors, you may need to submit an IRS Form W-8BEN-E to establish your withholding rate for certain U.S. source income. It is crucial to consult with a tax professional or financial advisor to understand your specific obligations and to complete the necessary paperwork accurately.

Lifestyle and Culture


In Puerto Rico, both Spanish and English are official languages. However, Spanish is the predominant language spoken by the majority of the population. Once you move to Puerto Rico, it’s essential to have a basic understanding of Spanish in order to fully immerse yourself in the local culture and daily life.

Climate and Environment

Puerto Rico is a Caribbean island, known for its beautiful beaches, diverse environment, and warm tropical climate. Sitting between the mountain ranges and the coastline, San Juan is Puerto Rico’s capital city. Apart from the pristine beaches, such as those found in Culebra and Vieques, Puerto Rico is also home to El Yunque, a tropical rainforest, and the picturesque city of Ponce. The island’s natural beauty offers a wide range of outdoor activities for residents to enjoy year-round.

The climate in Puerto Rico is generally warm and humid throughout the year. However, it’s essential to be aware of the hurricane season, which usually lasts from June to November. Hurricanes can occasionally cause significant damage to the island, so being prepared and staying vigilant are essential when living here.


Puerto Rico has a mix of public and private healthcare facilities. The standard of healthcare is generally good, although it might not be on par with services found in the mainland United States. It’s crucial for newcomers to have adequate health insurance coverage to ensure access to quality healthcare services. Expats may prefer private healthcare providers, as they often have shorter wait times and more specialists available.


While Puerto Rico generally enjoys a laid-back Caribbean island atmosphere, crime rates have been a concern in certain areas, particularly in parts of San Juan. It’s important for new residents to exercise caution in unfamiliar neighborhoods and be aware of their surroundings. However, most areas frequented by tourists and expats, such as beach resorts and gated communities, have higher security levels and are generally safer.

Documentation and Immigration

Passports and Visas

When moving to Puerto Rico, it is important to have the proper documentation in place. For U.S. citizens, a valid passport, birth certificate, or social security card may suffice as proof of citizenship when traveling to and from Puerto Rico. This is because Puerto Rico is a U.S. territory and U.S. citizens do not require a visa to enter or reside in Puerto Rico.

For non-U.S. citizens, entering Puerto Rico requires a valid passport and, depending on the individual’s nationality and the purpose of their visit, a visa may also be needed. The Visa Waiver Program allows citizens of participating countries to travel to Puerto Rico for tourism or business purposes for a period of up to 90 days without obtaining a visa. It is important to verify whether your country is part of this program and if you are eligible for visa-free travel to Puerto Rico.

U.S. Immigration Authorities

Since Puerto Rico is a U.S. territory, the U.S. immigration authorities have jurisdiction over border control and the visa process. This means that non-U.S. citizens must comply with the same immigration laws and requirements as they would when traveling to any other U.S. state. The U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) are responsible for overseeing the entry and exit of all travelers to and from Puerto Rico.

It is crucial for non-U.S. citizens to be aware that any encounters with U.S. immigration authorities, such as at airports, may result in questions about their immigration status. Undocumented immigrants, in particular, should be cautious when traveling to Puerto Rico, as entering any U.S. airport can expose them to the potential danger of being discovered by immigration enforcement agents.

Utilities and Services

Setting Up Utilities

When planning to establish domicile in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an essential step is to set up the necessary utilities for your residence. In Puerto Rico, the primary utilities consist of electricity, water, and sewer services. For electricity, the main provider is the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA). To set up an account with PREPA, you’ll need your Social Security card, a valid identification document, and proof of ownership or lease agreement for the property.

Water and sewer services are managed by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA). To connect water services, you’ll need to provide your Social Security card, proof of residence, and the property’s physical address.

Both the electricity and water services can be a mix of reliable and unreliable, so it is essential to be well-prepared for potential outages. It is highly recommended to have backup generators and water storage solutions in place in case of service disruptions.


The primary means of transportation in La Isla del Encanto is by car. While there is a public transportation system in Puerto Rico, it is limited and primarily services the metropolitan area of San Juan. As such, owning a reliable vehicle is crucial for navigating the island’s roads. Importing your vehicle to Puerto Rico requires the proper documentation, including a shipping receipt, vehicle title, and proof of ownership. Once in Puerto Rico, you’ll need to complete the necessary registration and inspections to ensure your vehicle complies with local requirements.

There are also taxis and ridesharing options available, such as Uber, for those who prefer not to own a car.


If you’re relocating to Puerto Rico from the United States, you won’t need to go through a traditional immigration process since the island is a U.S. commonwealth. However, you will need to provide certain documents, such as:

  • Birth Certificate
  • Social Security Card
  • Valid identification (e.g., driver’s license or passport)

These documents will be necessary for various procedures, including setting up utilities, registering your vehicle, and applying for tax benefits, such as those found under Act 60. Ensuring that you have the proper documentation in hand before your move will make transitioning to life in Puerto Rico much smoother.

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